A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption. This physical process differs from fluorescence, phosphorescence, and other forms of luminescence, in which a material emits light. Most materials selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light. Materials that humans have chosen and developed for use as pigments usually have special properties that make them useful for coloring other materials. A pigment must have a high tinting strength relative to the materials it colors. It must be stable in solid form at ambient temperatures. For industrial applications, as well as in the arts, permanence and stability are desirable properties. Pigments that are not permanent are called fugitive. Fugitive pigments fade over time, or with exposure to light, while some eventually blacken. Pigments are used for coloring paint, ink, plastic, fabric, cosmetics, food, and other materials. Most pigments used in manufacturing and the visual arts are dry colorants, usually ground into a fine powder. For use in paint, this powder is added to a binder (or vehicle), a relatively neutral or colorless material that suspends the pigment and gives the paint its adhesion. A distinction is usually made between a pigment, which is insoluble in its vehicle (resulting in a suspension), and a dye, which either is itself a liquid or is soluble in its vehicle (resulting in a solution). A colorant can act as either a pigment or a dye depending on the vehicle involved. In some cases, a pigment can be manufactured from a dye by precipitating a soluble dye with a metallic salt. The resulting pigment is called a lake pigment. The term biological pigment is used for all colored substances independent of their solubility.
Pigments are the solid colored powder available in both organic as well as inorganic form and mainly find usage in changing of color. As these are unaffected physically/chemically by substrate in which these are mixed, some industry sectors these find use in include chemical compounding industries, ink, plastics, textile, agriculture and other areas.
Features of the Pigments :
Finds application as coloring agents
Are easily dispersible and come with superior light & weather fastness
Provides for consistency in color & shade
Comes with high baking stability which makes it suitable for automotive & industrial paints
Features superior tinting strength and spray fastness when used in paints
Comes with superior good solvent resistance properties
Application of Pigments: Pigments find application in different industries like :